Adoni is an important town in Kurnool district, located in the north-western corner of the district, at a distance of 103 Kms. from Kurnool district headquarters and 300 Kms from Hyderabad. There is a Railway station on the Chennai-Mumbai broad gauge line. The State Highway known as Guntakal-Tungabhadra Road passes through the town. The Tungabhadra Low Level Canal (TBP LLC) passes at a distance of 8 Kms. from the town.
Adoni Municipality has an extent of 32.16 Sqkms consisting of population (provisional) of 162458 as per 2001 census. The Municipality is divided in to 41 Election wards and 26 Revenue Wards. The Municipality is having 42 notified settlements, 15 EWS layouts and 7 non-notified poor settlements.
The Municipality was constituted with effect from 1867 under Town Improvement Act of 1850. It was upgraded to special Grade Municipality in 2001.
1.1 MUNICIPAL TIME LINE
1865 * Panchayat Upgraded to Municipality III grade.
1899 * Formation of 1st Council
1965 * Upgraded to Ist grade Municipality
1981 * Implementation of IDSMT Scheme
1981 * Council Election held
1990 * U B S P Scheme Implemented.
1995 * Election to Municipal Council held.
1998 * UBSP Scheme converted into SJSRY and NSDP scheme introduced.
1998 * I L C S Scheme sanctioned.
2000 * Election held for Municipal Council
2001 * Municipality upgraded to Special Grade Municipality
2001 * APUSP Project Implemented.
2002 * Implementation of BASIC MAPP.
2005 * Implementation of CMAPP -1st Cycle
1.2 Topographical Features
Adoni town had a population of 1,6,458 as per 2001 which 65% are Hindus, 25% Muslims, Christians are 3% and other communities are 7% . Out of total population, the male population is 82,345 and female population is 79,639. The Percentage of literacy of the town is 69.5% male of which 49.0% are females.
In Adoni 6128 Nos. of House Site Pattas are issued to the public & again there is demand of 4000 Nos. 338 Nos. of Houses are sanctioned under VAMBAY Scheme, there is demand for 1459 Nos. proposals are sent to the Managing Director for A.P. Housing Corporation, Hyd., 1000 Nos. of Houses are administratively sanctioned to the Adoni Town under Rajiv Gruha Kalpa Programme. Out of which 300 Nos. applications are received.
1.4Economic base of the town.
The Government was pleased to give Self Government to the Adoni town under the Act of 1850 and it came into operation in May, 1865. The Municipal Council came into being in its full fledged form with an elected Chairman in 1899. The Municipality was upgraded into first grade in 1956 and to the special grade status in 2001. In 1954-55 the area of the Municipality was 7.37 Sq. Miles. With the addition of4.26 Sq Miles in 1961-62, the total municipal area increased to 11.63 Sq Miles. The present area of Municipality is 32.12 Sq. Kms. Upto 1914, the strength of Adoni Municipal Council was 16, of whom 4 were elected members and the remaining 12 nominated ones. The strength increased to 32 subsequently and the present strength is 36 excluding the 3 nominated members.
1.5Industries and Employment Pattern
Adoni is rightly called the Lancashire of Rayalaseema, because of its industrial importance in the Rayalaseema region. Various kinds of Cotton are grown, including the Sea Island cotton, in these parts and in their vicinity. Adoni is also a Commercial and Industrial center with adequate transport and marketing facilities. There are many oil Expellers and Factories for Cotton Ginning and Pressing Factories (Decorticating). The town now consists of a newly constructed Cotton Market, the largest in Andhra Pradesh and three Cotton Mills, namely the Rayalaseema Mills, the Adoni Spinning and Weaving Mills and the Adoni Cotton Mills. In short Adoni is called as the Lancashire of Rayalaseema. Many and varied are the industrial products of Adoni. Adoni is specially noted for its Carpets popularly known as “Jamkhanas”. This industry which is an ancient and long standing one, provides employment for many Muslim ladies also. Beedi Industry is also thriving here and there are many important Beedi factories. The Wool Industry (Manufacture of Kambalies) is also steadily developing. Cotton seeds industry has acquired some importance.
Adoni is the largest groundnut oil producing centre. Oil seed industry is well organized. Groundnuts arrive at the Adoni Market even from the neighboring districts. The Adoni Oilseed and Oil Exchange Ltd is well organized institution for groundnut trade. There are number oil mills and oil is exported to far off states like West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh for the manufacture of Vanaspati to Vegetable solvent Extraction Plant utilizing expeller cake for export.
1.6 Education and Health Facilities
At present the Municipality is maintaining 36 Elementary schools, 2 High Schools, 5 UP schools. One High school is there exclusively for Girls. There are three Government Degree Colleges and 5 Junior Colleges. There are three Government Hospitals and one ESI Hospital, Besides these there are 10 Nursing Homes. There are four urban health centers are also located in the poor settlements, catering to the health needs of the Urban Poor.
- Role of the Town
The town with its built up area is actually confined to a small portion in the north-east while the Municipal boundary of the town extends over vast agricultural lands on the western and southern sides. It is bounded by the huge hillocks and the reserve forest area in the north. The Mekalavagu flows along the southern boundary of the town. The Howdadi Vanka flowing from the north-east to south-west across the town through the thickly built up area. Another stream, the Mandagari Vanka flows from west forms almost the southern boundary for the built up area of the town.
The Chennai-Mumbai broad gauge line runs from south-east to north-east across the town almost separating the residential areas to the north and the industrial areas to the south of the railway line. The State Highway (Guntakal-Tungabhadra Road) passes through the heart of the town from south to north-west. Pattikonda road connects the town from south east Yemmiganur road from north-east and Siriguppa road from the west. The old town is the very thickly built-up area located between the Ambedkar Road on the north and the State Highway on the south.
The new residential colonies like Valmiki nagar in the north. N.G.O’s Colony and Housing Board colony in the east developed beyond the old town. Saibaba nagar, S.K.D. Colony and T.B.P. Colony are the new residential areas developed in between the State Highway and the Railway line. Kranthi nagar had developed south of railway line opposite to the railway station. Raichoti colony is the lonely residential area developed south of Mandigiri Vanka. Kallubhavi village located on Alur Road at the southern end of the town and Parvatapuram village situated a butting the western boundary of the town are the two residential suburbs included within the Municipal limits of the town.
1. 8 Urban Poor
There are 49 poor settlements with a population of 62315 which constitute 50% of the total population of the town as per 2004 census. Out of the 49 poor settlements 42 poor settlements are notified. The villagers come and live for providing education to their children and they become permanent settlers. Due to severe famine during the last few years, the low-income group people from the villages came and settled in the town for livelihood. They constitute major urban poor. As such the population of urban poor is increasing year by year. To meet the civic amenities and services like shelter, Water supply, drainage, health, education and livelihood have become major concerns of the Municipality. This further affect the Municipal governance to meet the requirements of the Urban poor due to insufficient revenue of the Municipality. The un-employed youth ratio is also relatively high as there are not Industrial resources for employment particularly for the educated.
The Adoni Municipality is having 42 notified slums and most of these settlements lack basic amenities like roads, drainage, and water supply. As per J.B. Micro planing survey data, these notified slums have 9,712 households, and population of 62315 out of which 25391 are below poverty line. The SC and ST population of these slums is 15781 and 1372 respectively. The poverty in the town increased with the closure of many industries, leaving many workers without any employment. Because of its location in drought-prone area, the commercial activities in the town are suffering due to the successive droughts and vagaries of monsoons.
The illiteracy in the poor settlements is very high and many of these poor settlements are inhabited by the Muslim and SC & ST communities and there is lack of health awareness leading to open defecation. Because of lack of basic amenities like proper sanitation and drainage facilities, the inhabitants are prone to communicable diseases.
Prevalence of illiteracy in the poor settlements is a common phenomenon in the town. The dwellers in the poor settlements are experiencing extreme poverty, starvation, mal -nutrition, illiteracy, ill health and diseases. Because of the poor financial position, the Municipality is not in a position to provide basic amenities to the required extent and is only implementing the governmental schemes like SJSRY, NSDP etc. and not in a position to meet the environmental infrastructure demands of the urban poor residing in the slums.
1.9 Municipal Finances
The demand of property tax in the year 1999-2000 was 65.46 lakhs and due to the delimitation of 75% and 100% o property tax, the demand increased to 94.40 lakhs during the year 2000-01 And due to special effects made by the municipal commissioner an amount of Rs.108 lakhs was collected during the year 2000-2001.
The Water charges were enhanced from Rs. 60 to 80 per month in the year 2000-01. Due to this enhancement , the revenue increased from Rs. 21.26 lakhs to Rs. 35.00 lakhs. The vegetable market fee was also increased nearly Rs.5.00 lakshs during the year 2001-02 in the public option . Advertisement tax rates were enchased in the year 1999-2000 and the demand was increased considerably from Rs. 0.64 lakhs to Rs. 2.18 lakshs. The direct taxes , accounts 13.31 % total revenue of the municipality . The Municipality is getting nearly 6.7 % of revenue from the water supply charges.
Expenditure : The expenditure in staff salary and pensions accounts major share of 77% in the total expenditure of the municipality. The expenditure on infrastructure provision was only 1.5%.
1.10 Traffic & Transportation
For the safety of the public and transportation of goods the Municipality has shown interest to the maximum. Roads have been widened for safer traffic mode. Still efforts are being made in the areas where narrow roads and bye lanes are there in the town.
1.11 Environmental Issues :
The environmental infrastructure development in Adoni town could not be achieved to the desired extent due to the poor financial position of the Municipality. In the notified slums, some infrastructure provision was made from the funds received under various Central and State Government Schemes.
Most of the notified slums still lack of basic infrastructure and there is no proper linked infrastructure to all the notified slums. Hence the provision of infrastructure both in the slums and slums-linked infrastructure, assumes utmost importance in the context of lack of basic amenities in the areas inhabited by poorer sections.
1.12 Preliminary Environmental Statement
Adoni Municipality, which spreads over an area of approximately 32.12 sq. km. Consists of total 42 poor settlements with a population of 62,315. The total poor settlement population accounts to 39% of the total town population. The infrastructure facilities in all the poor settlements are very less and are in bad conditions.
Water pollution : The available ground water contains fluorides far in excess of allowable limits. The P.W scheme to these areas is also not laid so far. In some of the slum areas like Kallubavi, Indira Nagar, Parvatapuram and Hanuman Nagar, the fluoride content is so high that the water is not fit for bathing purposes also. About 78 % of the total population are covered with water supply through pipes and the rest of the people are served through hand pumps and bore water. The pipe lines are getting damage by the failure of joints resulting contamination by drain water. Thus replacements of age old pumping mains which are frequently leaking are to be rectified to arrest the pollution to the extent possible and to minimize the wastage of purified water.
Industrial pollution: Cotton mills are located in Sankar Nagar, Kallubai and Amaravathi Nagar which are slum areas. The dust eminated from out from these cotton mills is a health hazard to the residents in the neighborhood areas, creating respiratory allergies.
Drainage problem: The drainage network is not properly planned and is done in a piece-meal manner way. The drains constructed are not connected to disposal points, leading to shifting of drainage problem from one location to another location.
Open defecation and badly maintained community latrines: The percentage of illiteracy is high in municipality and there is lack of health and hygiene awareness among the poor
particularly in Muslim localities. Open defecation is common in many slum areas.
The rocky terrain is found in Carvanpeta, Kowdelypeta and septic tank latrine construction is not possible in these areas, discouraging the poor.
The community latrine located in the central part of the town like Venkanna bai, Khajipura, Krantinagar, Koudalpeta and slaughterhouse is creating in sanitary environment due to poor maintenance of community latrines.